LCL - Commonly used to describe an international ocean freight service that was designed for shipping boxed, crated or palletized cargo from or to the USA that can't fill an entire 20′ or 40′ foot container. Priced per cubic meter.

FCL - All goods in the container are listed on a single Bill of Lading, and as such are owned by a single party. It does not matter how full the container is. Payment is made on the basis of a full container.

TPEB - Transpacific Eastbound

TEU - 20 ft. container equivalent units

EEI - Electronic Export Information Filing. This data is the electronic equivalent of the export data formerly collected as Shipper's Export Declaration.

CFS - Warehouse that specializes in the consolidation and de-consolidation of cargo.

CBM - Per Cubic meter. If LCL shipment is more than 1 tonne per CBM, it will be charged per tonne. There is a "break-even" point at which LCL will cost the same as FCL.

Cartage - The pickup and delivery of freight within a local metro area. May be used to collect freight from the airpot, a CFS, or a domestic warehouse.

Top 3 Streamship Lines - 1. ONE, 2. HAPAG, and 3. MAERSK

Bonded - Secure locations in case goods haven’t cleared customs. Pangea’s warehouse is not bonded.

CBM - Cubic meters

Top 2 Co-Loaders - 1. FLxLCL and 2. ShipCo

HTS Code - Harmonized Tariff Schedule: developed by the World Customs Organization and are used to define and classify the goods being shipped internationally.

Interior Point Intermodal - Inbound movement to an inland point consisting of the consignee's door rather than an inland rail terminal or container yard, which would be typically be referred to as a landbridge or mini-landbridge movement. An IPI movement is typically accomplished by truck, or, for longer distances, a combination of trail and truck at the discretion of the ocean carrier.

DO - Delivery Order

Hot Container - An urgent shipment that all teams must make every effort to delivery by the deadline; this usually refers to a delivery for a high-value enterprise customer, or is urgent for any other legitimate reason.

Cartage - Type of trucking that usually covers pickups from container freight stations (CFS) (for both LCL and air) and deliveries within the local area.

Dangerous Goods - Solids, liquids, or gases that can harm people, property, or the environment. 

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) - Document that provides health and safety information about products, substances, or chemicals that are classified as hazardous substances or dangerous goods.

ULD - A pallet or container used to load freight on an aircraft, allowing a large quantity of cargo to be bundled into a single unit. Leads to fewer units to load, saves ground crews time and helps prevent delayed flights.

Weight/Volume - kg/cbm

Chargeable Weight - Weight that the carrier will use to calculate the freight cost. Chargeable weight is typically the higher of actual weight or volumetric weight. Used to calculate air shipment costs.

14-16 days - How long it usually takes a freight shipment to delivery from Shanghai/Qingdao to Los Angeles.

1-3 days - The average airport to airport transit time from Shanghai/Qingdao to Los Angeles.

LFD - The last day of a period of free storage time in which the cargo can be picked up without paying demurrage. Usually 2 days after arrival, so pick up quickly!

Demurrage - A charge payable to the owner of a chartered ship in respect of FAILURE TO LOAD or DISCHARGE the ship within the time agreed.

Bill of Lading - A legal contract that defines responsibility for goods while they are in transit.

Airway Bills - Issued by air carrier of goods on receipt of goods after completion of export customs formalities of the country. Shipper obtains these after handing over cargo to them.

Facility Information Resource Management System (FIRMS) - FIRMS is a program whereby U.S. Customs & Border Protection manages customs bonded facilities. A specific code is assigned to each bonded facility, the FIRMS code. This is required as part of the entry by the importer to identify the location of the imported goods. Each CFS has a firms code.

Import Service Charge - ISC (terminal/cargo handler needs to be paid) air freight only!

Internal Philippines Team - Works the nightshift; calls terminal to provide updates on shipments.

NVOCC - Nonvessel operating common carrier: provide scheduled ocean shipping services; do not own equipment handle less than container load shipments.

Negotiated Rate Agreement - Written and binding arrangement between an NRA shipper and an eligible NVOCC to provide specific transportation service for a stated cargo quantity, from origin to destination, on and after receipt of the cargo by the carrier or its agent (or the originating carrier in the case of through transportation.

Automated Manifest System - Designed by U.S. Customs to facilitate cargo arrival information and release information between the Steam Ship Lines, Airlines and Rail Carriers for shipments destined to or transiting the United States.

Chassis - Underpart of motor vehicle: chassis usage fee is for truck trailers that carry ocean containers by road.

FOB - Buyer takes delivery of goods being shipped to it by a supplier once the goods leave the supplier's shipping dock.

Emergency Bunker Surcharge - Implemented by carriers to further cover the cost of rising fuel prices.

Low Sulfur Surcharge - To offset the additional cost incurred by switching to cleaner fuels in Emission Control Areas; included in Pangea’s rates.

General Rate Increase (GRI) - The average amount by which shipping carriers increase their tariff rates applied to base rates. Every 15 days, must be announced 30 days in advance. Think of it as a ceiling.

Golden Week - A week-long national holiday in China, so Chinese factories will be shut down. Capacity will be tight and prices will be high for both ocean and air freight.

Peak Season Surcharge - Aug-Oct; a fluctuating surcharge that carriers may apply during times of high demand.

ISPS - International Ship & Port facility Security; included on Pangea’s rates.

ISF - Importer Security Filing. Pangea does not charge, since it is included in our customs fee.

FDA - Regulates food, drugs, biologics, medical devices, electronic products that give off radiation, cosmetics, veterinary products, tobacco,

C-TPAT - Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism: a voluntary supply chain security program led by U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) and focused on improving the security of private companies' supply chains with respect to terrorism.

FMC Holy Trinity - 1. Only Pangea can purchase ocean freight and resell, 2. All rates offered must be documented PRIOR to cargo receipt (3 options), and 3. Client MUST be invoiced in accordance w/ documented rate.

Tariff - Publicly available tariff; rate must be valid for all customers in the same trade lane.

NSA - Negotiated Service Agreement: confidential contract with clients, beset suited for ongoing traffic in one trade lane for one client. With an NSA you can require your customer to ship a minimum quantity or volume of cargo over a fixed period of time.

TVR - Time Volume Rates

Alameda Corridor Charge (ACC) - Shipments to and/or from the ports of Los Angeles,
Long Beach and San Pedro using rail transportation between rail ramps and CY at these ports shall be subject to ACC.

CTF - Clean Truck Fee

Pier Pass - Cargo loaded or discharged from vessels at the ports of Los Angeles or Long Beach (LA/LB) and Oakland will be subject to the PierPass Traffic Mitigation Fee (TMF) or OAKPASS fee. These fees are assessed by
marine terminal operators at these ports to reduce congestion and improve air quality in and around the ports.

Security Charge - In order to comply with security requirements of underlying ocean carriers or marine terminal operators, a carrier security charge (CSC), or carrier security fee (CSF) or terminal security charge (TSC) may apply to shipments.

Hazmat - A material or substance that poses a danger to life, property, or the environment if improperly stored, shipped, or handled. At the risk and expense of the consignee and/or owner of the goods.

Foreign Agricultural Service - The foreign affairs agency with primary responsibility for the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) overseas programs — market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information. (FAS - exports)

USAID - U.S. agency primarily responsible for administering civilian foreign aid and development assistance.

OPIC - Overseas Private Investment Corporation (exports)

USTDA - US Trade and Development Agency (exports)

CBP - U.S. Customs and Border Protection

NHTSA - National Highway Traffic Safety Administration

APHIS - Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

DCMA - Defense Contract Management Agency

FSIS - Food Safety and Inspection Service

ATF - Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives

TTB - Tax and Trade Bureau

NMFS - National Marine Fisheries Service

CDC - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

DDTC - Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (State Dept.)

FWS - Fish and Wildlife Service

CPSC - Consumer Product Safety Commission

NRC - Nuclear Regulatory Commission

FAS - Foreign Agricultural Service

OTEXA - Office of Textiles and Apparel

Pangea Customs - Pangea team responsible for helping importers and exporters meet federal trade laws and regulations for international shipments.

1.2 Drop Test - Report containing safety information of package with batteries that demonstrates package safety & integrity when dropped from 1.2 meters high.

Advance Commercial Information - ACI; Software system developed by Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) to collect and store data on import shipments into Canada. 

Aircraft Rotation Delay - A delay caused by an aircraft rotation. This is because aircrafts rotate on routes. If there is an issue at an earlier stage of the route, it will have an impact on the next few flights. Alternatively, this could be because the original aircraft planned had an issue, and now they have to swap that plane out with another aircraft.

Arbitrary Charge - Ocean freight charge that covers the transportation of cargo from a feeder port to a base port by feeder or barge.

Arrival Notice - Document sent by the ocean carrier to notify the consignee and/or notify party about the upcoming arrival of a shipment.

Authority to Make Entry - Document issued by a carrier that authorizes another party or carrier (who is not a named consignee) to pickup the cargo. 

Automated Broker Interface - Software system that allows customs brokers to electronically file import data with Customs and communicate with Automated Commercial Environment (ACE).

Advanced Shipping Notice (ASN) - Document sent to a party that is receiving cargo to inform them about an upcoming delivery. ASNs will typically include an estimated delivery date, packaging information, and a detailed list of SKUs contained in the shipment. 

Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) - Software system developed by US Customs and Border Protection to electronically track, control, and process all data regarding imported and exported goods.

Automated Export System (AES) - Software system used by U.S. exporters to electronically declare their international exports to the Census Bureau to help compile U.S. export and trade statistics. 

Automated Manifest System (AMS) - Software system that receives and stores information regarding inbound and outbound cargo on international carriers covering all modes of transportation.

Bill of Lading - Document between the shipper of goods and a carrier detailing the type, quantity, and destination of the cargo being transported. A bill of lading is a contract of carriage, and details terms of transportation, confirms that cargo has been loaded onto a particular vessel & voyage, and can serve as a document of title.

Bobtail - A cargo-carrying truck that does not have a trailer attached. We mostly see this come up in drop-and-pick scenarios when interfacing with our truck partners, but bobtail is also used as a verb on terminal to describe entering the terminal with no trailer. Many terminals have special bobtail lines that allow those truckers to skip the normal queues when containers are "discharged to wheels."

Booking Form - Form that an NVOCC provides to a shipper to gather information about a particular cargo between specified origin and destination points, information which ultimately then needs to be sent to the ocean carrier to place a booking.

Bullet Rate - Ocean freight charge that is special and usually discounted rate offered by an ocean carrier for a particular origin and destination, commodity, and cargo quantity.

Cargo Aircraft - Aircraft that is used for transporting cargo and not passengers.

Cargo Charges Correction Advice (CCA) - Request sent by a freight forwarder to a transportation carrier to make an amendment to the shipment instructions (e.g. needing to make a change on an already issued air waybill).

Cargo Handling Agent - Cargo terminal that deals with the physical handling of airfreight, including loading and unloading, storage, and document handling (aka Airport CFS).

Cargo Hold - Instructions issued by a carrier to withhold and prevent the release of cargo to the consignee.

Cargo Manifest - Manifest created by a consolidator or NVOCC that lists each individual shipment in a cargo consolidation and submitted to an airline together with the master air waybill.

Buyer’s Consolidation - Act of consolidating cargo from multiple suppliers into a single ocean FCL shipment for one consignee or cargo owner.

Carrier - Company or individual involved in the business of transporting goods.

Certificate of Origin - Document certifying that goods were manufactured in a particular country or location. This document is usually required for customs purposes when it is necessary to prove the origin of the imported goods.

Chassis - Trucking equipment that attaches to a tractor and is used to transport ocean containers on the road.

Chassis Pool - A collection of chassis that are contracted or leased to multiple carriers, but are combined such that truckers can use any chassis for any carrier in said pool.

Chassis Split - Fee charged when the container is not located in the same place as the chassis. In this case, the trucking company may assess a fee to cover the costs of bringing the chassis to the container location.

Classification - Process for determining the proper tariff number for a particular commodity type. HS classification is governed by the General Rules of Interpretation (GRI).

Co-Loader - NVOCC that accepts and consolidates cargo from other NVOCCs or cargo owners for transportation.

Combi Aircraft - An aircraft configured such that both cargo and passengers can be loaded on the main deck.

Commercial Invoice - Document issued by a seller to a buyer that represents the demand for payment of money in exchange for the goods. This document is typically prepared along with a packing list.

Cosigned to Order - Method of consigning a bill of lading without naming a specific consignee, which thus make the bill of lading a negotiable document.

Cosignee - Party which the carrier will deliver or release the cargo to within a contract of carriage.

Consol - Short for "consolidation", refers to a container that contains cargo across multiple shippers.

Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) - Agency charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death associated with the use of the thousands of types of consumer products under the agency's jurisdiction.

Container Freight Station - Warehouse that specializes in the consolidation and de-consolidation of cargo.

Container Freight Station Cutoff (CFS) - Cutoff date in LCL shipments by which the goods must arrive into the CFS in order to meet a particular sailing. 

Container Seal - Lock placed on a container once it has been loaded that serves as a means of identifying whether or not the container has been opened while in transit.

Container Yard - Port facility in which ocean carriers will receive and deliver both loaded and empty containers.

Container Yard Cutoff - Date by which the container must be delivered to the container yard in order to meet a particular sailing.

Contraband Enforcement Team Exam (CET) - Customs examination (intensive) conducted by US Customs and Border Protection meant to search for narcotics, drugs, and weapons.

Customs Entry - Documentation required by US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) (and other partner government agencies for certain types of goods) which must be submitted to CBP in order to secure a customs release of imported merchandise.

Customs Entry Summary 7501 - Document describing the details of imported merchandise and includes commercial value, HTS classifications, and duty amounts.

Customs Hold - Hold implemented by an ocean carrier when the container has not been customs cleared, which then prevents the pickup of a container from the ocean terminal.

Customs Port of Entry - U.S. port at which the customs broker will clear the shipment.

Customs Port of Unloading - U.S. port where the shipment will first arrive, regardless of the mode of transportation (i.e. the first U.S. port).

Customs Release 3461 - Document used for a customs entry for obtaining a customs release into the U.S.

Dangerous Goods - Technically, any substance which meets the criteria for one or more of the nine U.N. hazard classes, as defined in the IMDG Code, ICAO "Technical Instructions for the Safe Transport of Dangerous Goods by Air," and other applicable international dangerous goods regulations. Generally, this term describes chemicals and other products and materials that can cause injury, illness, or death to human beings, animals, other organisms, can damage the environment and/or can causing significant property damage.

Delivery Appointment - Appointment made with a receiving party detailing the date and time when cargo will be delivered.

Demurrage - Penalty that is charged by an ocean terminal for FAILURE TO PICK UP a CONTAINER from an ocean terminal within the allotted free time. This is usually charged on a per container per day basis.

Department of Transportation - Agency of the US government responsible for regulating, among other things, the shipment of hazardous materials via all modes of transportation within the US and US international trade.

Description of Goods - Field on the bill of lading that contains a plain language description of the nature of the goods being shipped.

Detention - Penalty that is charged by an ocean terminal for FAILURE TO RETURN an EMPTY CONTAINER to an ocean terminal within the allotted free time once it has been picked up. This is usually charged on a per container per day basis.

Document Hold - Hold implemented by an ocean carrier when the bill of lading has not followed the proper release process, which then prevents the pickup of a container from the ocean terminal.

Drayage - Type of trucking that covers the transportation of ocean containers and delivery within a local area.

Drop & Pick - Type of delivery that entails delivering a container to a receiving party, leaving, and then returning to pick up the empty container once it has been unloaded by the receiving party.

Dry Run - Delivery event in which the trucker was not able to successfully complete the delivery for whatever reason.

Entry Summary Declaration (ENS) - Similar to the AMS filing for the USA. Required by EU customs to do a proper security assessment of the cargo that is entering EU ports. The ENS must be filed 24 hours before the container is loaded at the port. Filed by the carrier.

Exchange Pallets - Pallets that a container freight station (CFS) will require before releasing cargo to a trucker. This is required as compensation for the pallets that the CFS uses when de-consolidating a container.

Export Accompanying Document (EAD) - Document used for exports out of the EU; it is an "official evidence of export" and must be stamped by customs in the last member state where the goods exit the EU. 

Express Bill of Lading - Non-negotiable form of a bill of lading consigned to a named party in which no original bills of lading are issued at all. The carrier is obligated to deliver the goods to the named consignee. The express bill of lading is frequently used if the importer paid for the goods before shipping or has credit with the supplier. It expedites the release of the goods upon arrival and saves on time and mail courier fees by eliminating the need for a physical bill of lading to be presented.

Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) - Agency created by the Shipping Act of 1984 to commercially regulate foreign and inter-coastal ocean commerce. The FMC licenses ocean freight forwarders, and requires comprehensive tariff filing by VOCC and NVOCC ocean and inter-coastal carriers, shipping conferences and ocean terminals.

Feeder Vessel - Type of vessel that is smaller than a mother vessel that arranges transportation of containers from a feeder port to a bigger port of loading.

Flat Rack Container - Type of container that is open but has a floor / base. These are typically used for transporting heavy items of cargo that could not otherwise be loaded into an ocean container.

Pangea House Bill of Lading - House bill of lading issued by Pangea and generated using the bill of lading editor in Core.

Port of Loading - Port at which the cargo is loaded onto a vessel departing from the origin country.

Port of Unloading - Port at which the cargo will be discharged from a vessel.

Forwarder Cargo Receipt (FCR) - Non-negotiable document issued by a freight forwarder to a shipper that acts as a receipt for cargo given by a freight forwarder. 

Free Trade Agreement (FTA) - Agreement between two or more nations to reduce barriers to trade among themselves in a variety ways, but primarily by reducing or removing customs duties on goods produced in participating countries.

Freight-All-Kinds (FAK) - A pricing mechanism that groups multiple classes of freight into a single class; reason it is useful: it allows for much easier rating and reduces re-classification and billing errors for companies that ship a wide range of products.

Freight Collect - Payment instructions on a bill of lading in which the consignee is responsible for the payment of freight charges to the carrier.

Freight Hold - Hold implemented by an ocean carrier when the freight charges have not been paid for, which then prevents the pickup of a container from the ocean terminal.

Freight Prepaid - Payment instructions on a bill of lading in which the shipper is responsible for the payment of freight charges to the carrier.

Freight Release - Document produced by a co-loader that signifies that the freight charges have been paid for and is sent to a CFS to release the cargo, although there could be separate holds in place.

Freight Surcharge - Air freight charge that covers the transportation and handling of cargo in a contract of carriage.

Fuel Surcharge - Air freight charge that accounts for the fuel costs associated with the transportation and handling of cargo in a contract of carriage.

Full Truckload (FTL) - Type of trucking in which an entire truckload is reserved for the transportation of the cargo. 

FYCO - The Dutch abbreviation for "fysieke controle" - or physical inspection, relating to customs.

Garment on Hanger (GOH) - Container loading method in which garments are placed on hangers inside the container as to eliminate the need for packaging and re-pressing the garments prior to sale.

General Rate Increase (GRI) - Event in which ocean carriers will announce a rate increase 30 days prior to the effective date as per Federal Maritime Commission (FMC) regulations. The announced GRI is not binding and may be subject to decreases at any time.

General Rules of Interpretation (GRI) - Rules that govern the classification of goods under the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (HS).

Hot Stow - Special service arranged by an ocean carrier to load a container onto the boat last, so that it may be unloaded first once the vessel arrives at the Port of Discharge.

House Airway Bill (HAWB) - Air waybill issued by a cargo shipping agent, such as an Indirect Air Carrier (IAC) or freight forwarder. Each HAWB covers one shipment from one shipper.

House Bill of Lading (HBL) - Bill of lading issued by an NVOCC to a cargo owner, typically with cargo owners as the shipper and consignee.

Immediate Transportation Number (IT) - Number that references a type of customs entry procedure in which cargo is transported in bond from one bonded location to another.

Importer Security Charge (ISC) - Fee charged by cargo handling agents (airport CFS) for the de-consolidation and document handling of air imports.

Importer Security Filing (ISF) - Electronic filing of data elements for cargo shipped by vessel from foreign seaports destined for importation into the United States. ISF has also been referred to as "10 + 2" because there are 10 additional data elements required by the importer 24 hours prior to loading, and 2 required by the vessel operating carrier within 48 hours of departure. 

Incoterms - Acronym for "International commercial terms," which are a standard set of definitions for trade terms (also known as delivery terms and terms of sale) for use in international trade. The eleven terms as of Incoterms 2010, effective January 2011, are: EXW, FCA, FAS, FOB, CPT, CFR, CIF, CIP, DAT, DAP and DDP.

Inland Container Depot (ICD) - Type of container yard located outside a general port vicinity, typically used for receiving containers to reduce the burden and costs of trucking a container all the way to a port. 

Inland Point Intermodal (IPI) - Inland point to which an ocean carrier will arrange transportation.

Inside Delivery - Accessorial fee charged by a cartage trucker in which the driver assist with the unloading and transportation of the cargo to an indoor location.

Intensive Customs Exam - Customs examination (intrusive) that involves the physical inspection of the cargo by US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) officers. This usually entails opening a container to examine the contents.

International Air Transport Association (IATA) - Trade association for the world's airlines, representing some 275 airlines or 83% of total air traffic that supports many areas of aviation activity and helps formulate industry policy on critical aviation issues.

International Maritime Dangerous Goods Code (IMDG) - International code to the safe transportation or shipment of dangerous goods or hazardous materials by water on vessel that is updated and maintained by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

INTTRA - (Shipping Portal) Electronic marketplace company that caters to the ocean shipping industry and facilitates electronic transactions related to ocean carriers such as container bookings, shipping instructions, container tracking, VGM submission, bills of lading, and invoicing. Shipping portals are web sites which allow shippers, consignees and forwarders access to multiple carriers through a single site. Portals provide bookings, track and trace, and documentation, and allow users to communicate with their carriers.

Known Consignor - Shipper whose procedures meet common security rules and standards sufficient to allow carriage of cargo or mail on any aircraft.

Known Shipper Management System (KSMS) - Software system for vetting, verifying, and communicating the status of air cargo shippers as known or unknown shippers.

LTL - Type of trucking in which a portion of a truckload is reserved for the transportation of the cargo that cannot fill up a full truckload. Usually entails that the cargo passes through several different hubs and moves on multiple different trucks before arriving at its final destination.

Letter of Credit - Letter from a bank guaranteeing that a buyer's payment to a seller will be sent and received on time and for the correct amount.

Liftgate - Trucking equipment that allows cargo to be lowered to the ground from the back of a truck. Liftgates are typically used in situations where there are no other ways to unload the cargo from a truck (e.g. no loading dock, no forklift, etc.).

Linehaul - Type of trucking that describes CFS to CFS or airport to airport transportation of cargo.

Live Unload - Type of delivery in which a truck driver will deliver cargo to a receiving party, allow the receiving party to unload the cargo within a certain amount of free time, then leave the premises once the unloading is complete.

Manifest Discrepancy - Mismatch between the information provided on a manifest and the physical cargo itself (e.g. piece count discrepancy).

Manifest Examination - Customs examination (non-intrusive) conducted by MET to inspect import documents, including commercial invoice, packing list, etc.

Marine Terminal Operator (MTO) - Company in the business of furnishing wharfage, dock, warehouse or other terminal facilities in connection with an ocean carrier. Marine terminal operators can be carrier or third-party owned & operated. 

Marks & Numbers - Field on the bill of lading that includes a visual description of the cargo through which all parties involved in the transportation process can identify the cargo, and distinguish the cargo from all others.

Marks Hold - Hold implemented by a container freight station (CFS) when the marks & numbers provided in the documentation do not match up with the physical cargo.

Master Air Waybill (MAWB) - Air waybill issued by an airline on behalf of one shipper or a cargo shipping agent, such as a freight forwarder. The MAWB may include one or more house air waybills (HAWB) for the same destination airport. cargo accepted directly from one shipper, or cargo shipping agent. covers one shipment for one destination airport.

Master Bill of Lading (MBL) - Bill of lading issued by an ocean carrier to an NVOCC, typically with NVOCCs as the shipper and consignee. This is usually seen in FCL shipments booked with an ocean carrier. 

Master House Bill of Lading (MHBL) - Bill of lading issued by a co-loader to another NVOCC, typically with NVOCCs as the shipper and consignee. This is usually seen in LCL shipments booked with a co-loader. 

Master Loader - Co-loader who accepts cargo from other co-loaders, organizes a consolidation and directly contracts with the carrier for physical movement of the cargo.

Mater Receipt - Document signed by an officer of a vessel evidencing receipt of a shipment onboard the vessel.

Material Data Safety Sheet (MSDS) - Document that provides health and safety information about products, substances, or chemicals that are classified as hazardous substances or dangerous goods.

Midstream Operation - Process of loading and unloading containers on a container ship while at sea.

Milk Run - Type of pickup or delivery in which multiple pickup or deliveries are completed during one trip.

Minimum Quantity Commitment - Minimum quantity of container volume which the freight forwarder will tender to the carrier for shipping over specified route within a specified period as stated in the contract.

Mother Vessel - Type of vessel that is larger than a feeder vessel that arranges transportation of containers between major ports.

"Mount to Wheels" - The act of unloading a container and directly transferring to a chassis, instead of "grounding" or "stacking" the container in the yard. Mounting to Wheels is an additional service carriers/terminals will offer (and charge for), as this is one way that forwarders can get full containers off terminal quicker. The area in the terminal where containers are mounted to wheels are most always outside of areas that they would close during a cargo operation. In addition, truckers can bobtail in through special gates that allow them to skip the normal lines. Example: "My client is willing to pay a premium to get her container mounted to wheels to ensure she can get her goods before her product launch."

Named Account - Type of ocean freight rate that is a special base rate on negotiated on behalf of a specific client for a specific trade lane. 

National Motor Freight Classification - Standard that provides a comparison of commodities moving in interstate, intrastate and foreign commerce. It is similar in concept to the groupings or grading systems that serve many other industries. Commodities are grouped into one of 18 classes—from a low of class 50 to a high of class 500—based on an evaluation of four transportation characteristics: density, handling, stow-ability and liability. Together, these characteristics establish a commodity's "transportability."

To Order Bill of Lading - Negotiable form of bill of lading that is consigned "to order" or "to order of [a party]" instead of being consigned to a named party. The carrier will hand over the shipment to whoever presents this bill of lading, as long as it is endorsed on the back. The holder of the negotiable bill of lading is assumed to be the owner of the goods being shipped. The negotiable bill of lading is commonly used when the purchase of goods is covered by a letter of credit or if the goods are expected to be traded on a mercantile exchange while the shipment is still in transit.

Negotiated Rate Arrangement - A confidential shipment specific quote. Written and binding arrangement between a shipper and an eligible NVOCC to provide specific transportation service for a stated cargo quantity, from origin to destination, on and after receipt of the cargo by the carrier or its agent (or the originating carrier in the case of through transportation).

Notify Party - Party listed on a bill of lading to whom a carrier will send the arrival notice. There can be several notify parties on a single shipment.

NVOCC Service Arrangement (NSA) - Written contract, other than a bill of lading or receipt, between one or more NSA shippers and an individual NVOCC or two or more affiliated NVOCCs, in which the NSA shipper makes a commitment to provide a certain minimum quantity or portion of its cargo or freight revenue over a fixed time period, and the NVOCC commits to a certain rate or rate schedule and a defined service level. The NSA may also specify provisions in the event of nonperformance on the part of any party.

Ocean Alliance - Container yard that exists outside the general port vicinity that serves as extra (and cheaper) storage space for containers. Containers could be transferred to an off-dock container yard due to an overflow of containers at the port.

Onboarding - Process for authorizing Pangea as an import customs broker to execute customs entry declarations, customs bonds, and other documents on behalf of the importer.

Original Bill of Lading - Type of bill of lading in which 1 to 3 bills of lading are printed and issued to a shipper. The carrier may not deliver the cargo to a consignee until the carrier has received an endorsed original bill of lading from the consignee via courier. A telex release may be used instead of the presentation of an endorsed original.

Packing List (PL) - Type of bill of lading in which 1 to 3 bills of lading are printed and issued to a shipper. The carrier may not deliver the cargo to a consignee until the carrier has received an endorsed original bill of lading from the consignee via courier. A telex release may be used instead of the presentation of an endorsed original.

Palletization - Act of shrink wrapping loose cargo on top pallets to increase the ease of handling, speed of loading, and protection of the cargo during the transportation process.

Partial Truckload (“Partial”) - Type of trucking that falls between a full truckload (FTL) and less than truckload (LTL) in which the shipper has a substantial amount of cargo but not enough for a full truckload. A partial truckload will share a truck with other shippers, but will stay on the same truck until it is delivered to the final destination (as opposed to an LTL shipment in which the cargo would pass through several terminals and trucks).

Partner Government Agency (PGA) - Federal agencies that regulate specific commodities imported into the US in conjunction with CBP. 

Partner Origin App (POA) - Internal Pangea platform that is very similar to Core but has stripped down access and is used by origin partners and origin users

Partner Government Agency Exam - Examination imposed or conducted by a PGA.

Peak Season Surcharge (PSS) - Ocean freight charge that an ocean carrier may add to its base rate for cargo transported during a specified period when demand for space is high. Unlike a general rate increase (GRI), a PSS can be announced and implemented with short notice.

Permit-to-Transfer - Permission granted by US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to a transportation carrier or bonded facility to transfer cargo in bond from a port to another bonded facility.

Pick Up Number - Unique code provided by an ocean carrier that allows a trucker to pick up cargo from a rail ramp.

TMF - Traffic Mitigation Fee

Pivot Weight - Weight in an airfreight container at which point a pivot rate applies.

Place of Pickup - Field on the bill of lading that specifies the location (if different from the Port of Loading) where the carrier receives the cargo from the shipper.

Place of Receipt - Field on the bill of lading that specifies the location (if different from the Port of Loading) where the carrier receives the cargo from the shipper.

Port Groups - Group of related ports (e.g. Southern China Base Ports) which Pangea has filed with the FMC that allows us to file NRAs between port groups rather than specific port pairs. This allows us greater flexibility when making routing decisions for our clients.

Pre-arrival Review System (PARS) - Software system that allows importers and brokers to submit import customs documentation to the Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) for review and processing before cargo arrives into Canada.

Pre-carriage - Connecting transportation needed prior to the primary transportation method. For example, feeder service can be considered pre-carriage.

Pre-pull - Accessorial fee charged by a trucking company when a container is pulled but recovered to a trucker yard rather than delivering straight. Pre-pull typically includes one night of free storage.

Pro Forma Commercial Invoice - Document that is prepared in a similar format to a commercial invoice but does not constitute a formal demand for payment (which otherwise is considered a commercial invoice)

Rail Arrival Notice - Arrival notice that includes detailed information regarding the rail arrival of a shipment. The Rail Arrival Notice typically includes an ETA and pickup number required to pick up the container from the rail ramp.

Rate Validity - Finite period of time within which a rate will be valid and honored by a carrier. The method for locking in a rate depends on the carrier and trade lane. For example, a transpacific eastbound container must gate-in to the origin terminal within the rate validity in order for the rate to be locked in.

Reefer Container - Type of container that is insulated, temperature-controlled for ensuring the inside of the container remains within a certain temperature range throughout the duration of the shipment. Reefer containers are typically used for certain commodities that cannot withstand rapid fluctuations of temperature (e.g. agricultural products, wax candles, etc.).

Residential Delivery - Accessorial fee charged by a trucking company for delivering to a residential area.

Sea Waybill - Non-negotiable express bill of lading issued by an ocean carrier.

Security Surcharge - Air freight charge that accounts for the cost of the airline to satisfy government security requirements aimed at preventing terrorism, weapons, and other dangers associated with air travel.

Shipper - Party that tenders cargo to a carrier within a contract of carriage.

Shipper's Declaration for Dangerous Goods - Document that certifies that the cargo has been packed, labeled, and declared according with the applicable dangerous goods regulations.

Shipper's Letter of Instruction (SLI) - Letter from a shipper to a freight forwarder or carrier providing instructions covering a particular shipment.

Shipper's Load and Count (SLAC) - Qualifying cause included on shipping documents that states that the container (or other type of shipping unit) was loaded by the shipper, as to limit the per package liability that the carrier faces when transporting cargo (i.e. the carrier is only liable for the container, not the packages inside).

Shipping Instructions - Document provided by the NVOCC to the ocean carrier advising details of cargo and exporter's requirements of its physical movement. It provides basic information to draw up the Bill of Lading.

Shipping Instructions Cutoff - Date by which the booking agent must submit shipping instructions to the ocean carrier in order to meet a particular sailing.

Shipping Order (SO) - Document that confirms acceptance of the booking by the carrier, details the pickup location of the empty container, and allows a trucker to pick up the container from the port.

Special Delivery - Accessorial fee charged by a cartage trucker for arranging a dedicated truck for pickup and/or delivery.

Steamship Line - Another word to describe ocean carrier. Internally, Pangea prefers the use of ocean carrier over steamship line.

String - Specific routing among a series of ports that a vessel will follow.

Straight Bill of Lading - Non-negotiable form of the bill of lading which is consigned directly to a named party, with the named party's customs broker listed as a "Notify Party." In this case, the carrier will issue a set of three original bills of lading, one of which must be endorsed by the consignee and presented in order to obtain the cargo at destination. Typically, the straight bill of lading is issued if buyer still owes payment for all or part of the goods.

Supply Chain - System of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.

Switch Bill of Lading - Second set of bills of lading that may be issued in exchange for the first set of bills of lading, typically used in shipments that involve multiple transactions (e.g. triangle trade), where the identities of each seller and buyer must remain hidden from each other.

Tailgate Examination - Customs examination (intrusive) in which a US Customs and Border Protection office opens the back of the container or truck to inspect the contents.

TARIC Code - The EU version of "HTS Code" - it also consists of 10 digits, and is used to classify goods in the EU.

Telex Release - Written message (can be email statement, scanned bill of lading with the word "Telex") from a transportation carrier that issued bill of lading to its destination counterpart that authorizes the release of the cargo to the named party without the presentation of an original bill of lading.

Third Party Billing - Payment instructions on a trucking bill of lading instructing the trucking carrier to bill a third party instead of the shipper or consignee.

Transloading - Act of transferring cargo from a container or truck to another container or truck.

Transportation Security Administration (TSA) - Agency of the US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) that has authority over the security of the traveling public in the United States. It was created as a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks.

Tri-axle Chassis - Chassis that has three axles (instead of the standard two) in order to better distribute the weight of a container, allowing overly heavy containers to be transported over the ground. Using a tri-axle chassis allows truckers to move overweight containers legally. Truckers charge an additional fee for a tri-axle.

Customs and Border Protection - Agency responsible for enforcing all U.S. laws relating to importation, exportation and immigration as they affect people, conveyances and cargo crossing US borders and ports and airports of entry/exit, and for the collection of duties and taxes due upon importation.

UN 38.3 Test Report - Document that includes the testing results of section 38.3 of the United Nations (UN) Manual of Tests and Criteria to ensure the safety of lithium batteries during transportation.

Unit Load Device (ULD) - Shipping container used in air freight that has variable sizing in order to fit on all locations within an aircraft.

Unverified Company - Record within Network that references a company. An unverified company that does not have users who login and don't share data across multiple companies. The locations and contact are completely managed by the account holder. Unverified companies are visually identifiable by a grey question mark.

Vehicle and Cargo Inspection System (VACIS) - Cargo scanning exam; customs examination (non-intrusive) in which the container or truck is scanned by an x-ray machine. 

Verified Company - Record within Network that references a...

  • Company that has users who login to the platform;

  • Company whose record is maintained and updated by Pangea;

  • Verified companies are visually identifiable in Network by a blue check mark.

Verified Gross Mass (VGM) - Amendment to Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS) on July 1, 2016 that requires shippers to verify the loaded container's gross mass prior to loading aboard a vessel.

Vessel Operator (VO) - Carrier that operates the vessel in an ocean shipment, but could be different from the carrier with whom the booking was placed. This could arise in a situation where an ocean alliance is involved.

Vessel Operating Common Carrier (VOCC) - Vessel operating common carrier, e.g. ocean carrier.

Volumetric Weight - Alternative weight calculation used by transportation carriers that is calculated by using the volume of a carton and a dimensional ("dim") factor. There are different dimensional factors for air transportation and ground transportation.

Voyage Number - Unique identifier that is tied to a particular vessel and voyage, which is unlike a flight number which is not tied to the aircraft itself.

Warehouse Payment - Fee charged by container freight stations (CFS) for the de-consolidation and document handling of ocean LCL imports.

Weekend Special - Accessorial fee charged by a cartage trucker for picking up and/or delivering on a weekend.

Yard Storage - Accessorial fee charged by a drayage trucker for storing a container at a trucker yard prior to delivery.

What do Incoterms cover?

  • The financial obligations of each party (e.g. who is responsible for services such as transport; import and export clearance etc);

  • The point in the journey where risk transfers from the seller to the buyer, i.e. "delivery";

  • Insurance costs throughout the shipment (only CIF and CIP have specific instructions for insurance).

Group E - Buyer is responsible all carriage - EXW

Group F - Buyer is responsible for main carriage and can arrange some transport within his/her own country.

Group C - Seller is responsible for main carriage, and risk transfers before main carriage.

Group D - Seller is responsible for main carriage, and risk transfers after main carriage.

Consignee - Recipient in consignment process

Cosigner - Initial owner of the goods in consignment process

Main Carriage - The international transportation between the exporting country and the importing country.

Inland Container Depot (ICD) - Dry ports equipped for handling and temporary storage of containerized cargo as well as empties. Situated at inland points away from sea ports.

Commercial Invoice and Packing List - CIPL

National Motor Freight Traffic Association (NMFTA) - Responsible for identifying and classifying every commodity with one of 18 values ranging from 50-500. They take into account multiple factors that determine the overall move-ability of the freight. As the class increases, the cost per hundred weight also increases to accommodate the more difficult freight.